It is relevant to the FA (Financial Accounting) and FR (Financial Reporting) exams. The article will explain how to calculate cash flows and where those cash flows are presented in the statement of cash flows.
Computing cash flows
Cash flows are either receipts (ie cash inflows and so are represented as a positive number in a statement of cash flows) or payments (ie cash out flows and so are represented as a negative number using brackets in a statement of cash flows).
Cash flows are usually calculated as a missing figure. For example, when the opening balance of an asset, liability or equity item is reconciled to its closing balance using information from the statement of profit or loss and/or additional notes, the balancing figure is usually the cash flow.
Common cash flow calculations include the tax paid, which is an operating activity cash out flow, the payment to buy property plant and equipment (PPE) which is an investing activity cash out flow and dividends paid, which is a financing activity cash out flow. The following examples illustrate all three of these examples.
Exercise calculating the tax paid
At the start of the accounting period the company has a tax liability of $50 and at the reporting date a tax liability of $90. During the year the tax charged in the statement of profit or loss was $100.
Solution It is necessary to reconcile the opening tax liability to the closing tax liability to reveal the cash flow – the tax paid – as the balancing figure. A vertical presentation of the numbers lends itself to noting the source of the numbers.
The tax charged in the profit or loss means that the entity now owes more tax. The debit charged as the expense in profit or loss is posted and a credit to the tax liability account reflects the effect of increase in the tax liability
This sub-total represents the amount of the tax liability that there would have been at the reporting date in the event that no tax had been paid
This is the last figure written in the reconciliation. It is monthly installment loans no credit check Kansas the balancing figure and explains why the actual year-end tax liability is smaller than the sub-total
This simple technique of taking the opening balance of an item (in this case the tax liability) and adding (or subtracting) the non-cash transactions that have caused it to change, to then reveal the actual cash flow as the balancing figure, has wide application.
At the start of the accounting period the company has PPE with a carrying amount of $100. At the reporting date the carrying amount of the PPE is $300. During the year depreciation charged was $20, a revaluation surplus of $60 was recorded and PPE with a carrying amount of $15 was sold for $20.
Solution Here we can take the opening balance of PPE and reconcile it to the closing balance by adjusting it for the changes that have arisen in period that are not cash flows. The balancing figure is the cash spent to buy new PPE.
Deprecation reduces the carrying amount of the PPE without being a cash flow. The double entry for depreciation is a debit to statement of profit or loss to reflect the expense and to credit the asset to reflect its consumption.
The revaluation gain increases PPE without being a cash flow. The double entry is a credit to the revaluation surplus to reflect the gain and to debit the asset to reflect its increase